2024 : 4 : 23
Seyed Mohammad Hosseini

Seyed Mohammad Hosseini

Academic rank: Assistant Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3144-6593
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 57930611200
Faculty: Literature and Languages
Address: Arak University


A Study on the Presentation of Mitigation Devices in American English File series
American English File series, mitigation, mitigation devices, pragmatic competence, textbook analysis
Researchers Seyed Mohammad Hosseini(PrimaryAdvisor)، Majid Amerian(Advisor)، Jiro Jiro(Student)


Textbooks in ESL/EFL educational settings are considered as one of the crucial sources. Textbooks cannot be separated from pragmatic competence, because the study of abstract system of language does not help learners to interact meaningfully and effectively. As an aspect of pragmatic competence mitigation helps speakers to avoid directness, and is a way to hide our real intentions and protect ourselves as well as show consideration toward others. In the present study, the presentation of mitigation devices in American English File series (3rd edition) was investigated. Flores-Ferrán’s model of mitigation was used in the current study, which involves ten mitigation devices. In order to find mitigation devices, the researcher focused on the input provided through reading and listening sections. This study focused on both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some excerpts of the examined cases during this study also presented. Two raters confirmed the accuracy of the data analysis. It showed that there was absence of two types of mitigation devices, proverbs and sayings and shields and also, it indicated that discourse markers, parenthetical verbs, tense, mood, aspect, and prosodic features were four dominant mitigation devices in listening sections and discourse markers and parenthetical verbs were the only mitigation devices provided in the reading sections. The analysis of the presentation of mitigation devices indicated AEF5 showed the highest frequency of presenting mitigation devices.