2024 : 5 : 24
Mohammad Ghaffary

Mohammad Ghaffary

Academic rank: Assistant Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4012-0093
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 55573741900
Faculty: Literature and Languages
Address: Arak University


A Feminist Approach to Masculinity and Femininity: Self-vanity and Self-Confirmation in Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse
Western Civilization, Feminist Perspective, Self-vanity, Self-confirmation, Hegemony
Researchers Abolfazl Horri(PrimaryAdvisor)، Mohammad Ghaffary(Advisor)، Jalil Jumaah Mrayeh(Student)


This thesis employs a descriptive-analytical approach and provides a feminist critical analysis of Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse. It investigates the social mores and racial characteristics of Western civilization. By concentrating on gender roles and societal norms, it also explores the social interactions between men and women in Western culture. Even though the story takes place between two waves of feminism, various discrepancies, and misunderstandings have been identified between men and women as self-improvement. Both look at the socioeconomic position of women from a feminist standpoint. To the Lighthouse depicts a patriarchal Western civilization that harbours several discriminatory attitudes against women. However, each wave of feminism represents a certain perspective about men's dominance over women. Therefore, women suffer from male hegemony's oppression and subordination, which is backed by societal cultural standards, particularly in Western cultures. The social structures and cultural norms in both Western communities equally repress the rebellious women against the injustice and enslavement of a male-dominated society. One of the societal issues that both genders experience in To the Lighthouse is class strife. Virginia Woolf made a significant contribution to modernizing English literature. During that period, Woolf backed the feminist cause and invented the stream-of-consciousness writing approach. Finally, this study concludes that the stereotyped representations of the superior male and inferior woman in the novel are the same as those seen in Western societies.