2024 : 4 : 13
Masoud Keshavarz

Masoud Keshavarz

Academic rank: Assistant Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6585-2752
Education: PhD.
Faculty: Literature and Languages
Address: Arak University


a comparative study on focalization in Doris Lessing's two novels, The Fifth Child and Ben, In the world, based on Rimmon-Kenan's model: Implications for teaching narrative
Narrative; focalization; facets of focalization, focalizer, and Rimmon-Kenan's model
Researchers Maryam Mardanshahi(Student)، Majid Amerian(PrimaryAdvisor)، Masoud Keshavarz(Advisor)


Gerard Gennette is one who introduced the term "focalization" as one of the vital component in narratology. he points out that the question of "who speaks?" is not sufficient enough to be applied in narratives rather the question of "who sees?" should be also taken into account. accordingly, a number of models regarding focalization have been offered, among them is Rimmon-Kenan who suggest three aspects of focalization, perceptual, psychological, and ideological. actually, she goes beyond what Gennette concerned with the visual aspect of the focalizer and presents a more extensive model in the study of focalization. the point from which the narrative has been depicted reveals not only the visual position of the focalizer but also the extent to which the focalizer is engaged with the focalized characters perceptually, psychologically, and ideologically. in teh current study this model has been used firstly, to determine the mentioned facets of focalization in the Doris Lessing's two novels, The Fifth Child and its sequel novel, Ben in the World and also secondly, to show whether the occurrence of the facets in the two novels have changed or not. the three aspects of focalization were found in the two novels and the frequency of occurring peceptual and psychological facets in each of the novel were counted. in order to find if the use of these two facets have changed significantly in the two novels, the statistical test, Chi-square test, has been used. the result showed that the Use of focalization or the viewpoint through which the narrative are presented in the two novels in the terms of pereptual and psychological aspects was not significantly different. in other words, the angel of representing the narrative from the former novel to the latter novel has not changed perceptually and psychologically. the other facet of focalization which deals with the world view of the writer elicited from the two novels has changed in the sense that the way the characters have bee