2024 : 4 : 21
Abolfazl Horri

Abolfazl Horri

Academic rank: Associate Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0260-6551
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 54970572400
Faculty: Literature and Languages
Address: Arak University


A Representation of Nature and Women in Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse and Simin Daneshvar’s Wandering, the Island and Wandered, the Cameleer: A Comparative Ecofeminist Study
culture, ecofeminism, nature, patriarchy, To the Lighthouse, Wandering, the Island, women
Researchers Abolfazl Horri(PrimaryAdvisor)


Ecofeminism as a critical theory by merging ecocriticism and feminism stands against the anthropocentric societies with dominating ideologies such as patriarchy. Ecofeminists suggest the correction of the binary oppositions; man/women, culture/nature, with interconnectedness among all of them in order to respect the right of living equally for every creature. The process of othering is a repetitive theme in many literary texts in different cultures such as To the Lighthouse written by Virginia Woolf in England and Wandering, the Island and Wandered, the Cameleer written by Simin Daneshvar in Iran. Thus, this qualitative study examines the representation of women and nature in both novels, and compares them based on the ecofeminist notions such as Mother Nature, male gaze, and the binary oppositions; culture/nature and men/women. Besides, it sheds light on the answer of each novel to the problem of patriarchy. According to this research, the protagonists in both novels, Lily and Hasti try to find their identity, break the patriarchal stereotypes, and change their characters from an ordinary woman to a modern individual. Moreover, Nature is represented as an individual character who is humanized and effects on other characters and their lives. Although, searching for the identity is complete when the characters acquire both feminine and masculine characteristics while they never lose their connection with nature. In addition, this study highlights the fact that men are also victimized as James, Mourad, and Salim complain about the way their patriarchal fathers have treated them. Finally, such comparative investigation reflects the fact that patriarchy is present in different cultures and meanwhile it can provide a room for hearing the voiceless voices; women, children, nature, and even men!