2024 : 6 : 16
Sayed Jamal Mirkamali

Sayed Jamal Mirkamali

Academic rank: Assistant Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7513-4423
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 35739053200
Faculty: Science
Address: Arak University


The first demographic data and life‑history trait of Iranian endemic toad, Bufotes luristanicus
Bufonidae · Bufotes · Breeding season · Metamorphosis · Female-biased SSD · Life expectancy
Researchers Alireza Pesarakloo ، Sayed Jamal Mirkamali ، Sareh Okhovat


The study of growth in amphibians is essential because it directly affects the moment of sexual maturity, timing of reproductive events, fecundity, and longevity. In this study, demographic life-history traits were estimated for the first time in populations of the Lorestan toad (Bufotes luristanicus), living in the southwest of Iran. The microscopic and macroscopic analysis showed that the annual reproductive cycle in B. luristanicus is discontinuous, reaching its peak in March. Metamorphosis was completed in approximately 45 days after spawning, and mean body length at metamorphosis was 14 mm. Significant sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was present in all populations and a larger asymptotic body size was observed 63.78 mm for females vs 55.76 mm for males. The adult survival rate (S) and life expectancy (ESP) were the same for both sexes (S = 0.78 and ESP = 5.05 years). Age and body size were positively correlated with each other for both females and males. Maximum longevity was recorded to be six years in both females and males, and ages of sexual maturity were estimated to be two years in breeding individuals. The adults sample age ranged from two to six (mean age of females: 4.71 ± 0.30 years, in males: 4.37 ± 0.18 years) years. Our data show that females are larger than males and live longer.