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Masoud Keshavarz

Masoud Keshavarz

Academic rank: Assistant Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6585-2752
Education: PhD.
Faculty: Literature and Languages
Address: Arak University


A Freudian Psychoanalytic Reading of Love and Hate in Iris Murdoch’s The Sandcastle
Freudian psychoanalytic criticism, Love, Hate, the unconscious, the Oedipus complex, Iris Murdoch’s The Sandcastle
Researchers Mohammad Ghaffary(PrimaryAdvisor)، Masoud Keshavarz(Advisor)، Layla Ali Kadhim Ramzi(Student)


Freudian psychoanalytic theory, developed by Sigmund Freud, delves into the unconscious mind and its influence on human behaviour. This theory suggests that hidden desires, conflicts, and childhood experiences often drive our thoughts, emotions, and actions. In The Sandcastle, Iris Murdoch explores the complex themes of love and hate through the lives of her characters. Love and hate are intricately intertwined, often blurring the lines between the two emotions. This thesis aimed to analyse the portrayal of love and hate in The Sandcastle and how it aligns with Freudian psychoanalytic theory, shedding light on these emotions' profound impact on the characters' lives and the overall significance of their experiences. By examining the characters' unconscious desires and conflicts, this analysis shed light on the story's complex dynamics of love and hate. In The Sandcastle, Murdoch skillfully weaves these concepts into her characters (Mor, Nan and Carter), revealing their hidden desires and fears. By examining the characters' dreams, slips of the tongue, and subconscious actions, their complex relationships and the underlying forces that shape them can be better understood. The present study found out that the complex interplay between love and hate challenges the traditional dualistic view. It highlighted the transformative power of reconciling these emotions, reminding readers that they are not mutually exclusive but integral to our emotional landscape. The characters navigate the tumultuous relationships, revealing the depth and complexity of human nature. The story added depth and complexity to exploring the human psyche, challenging readers to question the true essence of human connection and the destructive power of hate.