2024 : 6 : 14
Ali Kazemi

Ali Kazemi

Academic rank: Associate Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0618-6435
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 57197913901
Faculty: Agriculture and Environment
Address: Arak University


Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater quality and human health risk assessment of trace elements in the largest mining district of South Khorasan, Eastern Iran
Hazard index Mining district Non-carcinogenic risk Water quality Risk assessment South Khorasan Province
Journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Researchers Ali Kazemi ، Milad Esmaeilbeigi ، Zahra Sahebi ، sharif jurabian shooshtari


The groundwater resources of mining areas have been in a challenging condition in terms of metal pollution and human health. Therefore, this study investigated the concentration of cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), tin (Sn), and antimony (Sb) in groundwater samples (wells, qanats, and springs) in a heavily contaminated mining district, South Khorasan, Eastern Iran. Human health risk of the studied metals to target groups was assessed, and water quality of the studied groundwater was investigated in the study area. A total of 367 sampling sites (279 wells, 74 qanats, and 14 springs) in South Khorasan Province were selected to collect the groundwater samples from June to July 2020. Sampling was performed thrice for each sampling point, and hydrochemical parameters were evaluated using a portable multiparameter. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect the metal concentrations. Results showed an order of Se > Mo > Sn > Co > Sb, and hazard index (HI) demonstrated a warning condition for south of South Khorasan (drinking application), southwest of South Khorasan (Irrigation application), and east and center of South Khorasan (drinking-irrigation application). Hydrochemical parameters showed a classification of “Na + K type” and “Mixed Ca–Mg–Cl type” with an overall group of “Na-Cl-HCO3” for sampled waters. Ficklin-Caboi diagram depicted a classification of “near-neutral low metal,” and Schoeller diagram classified studied groundwater as “good” for drinking and irrigation consumptions and “Na-Cl” type based on ion balance diagram. Based on the correlation analysis, positive relationships were recorded among EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, sulfate, Ca2+, salt, total hardness, Mg2+, ammonia, and K+ measured in the water samples. In essence, arid regions of the world greatly rely upon groundwater resources for drinking and irrigation consumptions, and mining districts with a heavy load of active mines can be a serious threat to the groundwater q