2024 : 6 : 22
Ali Kazemi

Ali Kazemi

Academic rank: Associate Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0618-6435
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 57197913901
Faculty: Agriculture and Environment
Address: Arak University


Alterations and health risk assessment of the environmental concentration of heavy metals in the edible tissue of marine fish (Thunnus tonggol) consumed by different cooking methods
Heavy metals Marine fish Fish muscle Cooking methods Non-carcinogenic risks
Journal Regional Studies in Marine Science
Researchers Amir Ansari ، Ali Kazemi ، Milad Esmaeilbeigi


The effect of different cooking methods, including boiling, frying, steaming, spicing and raw on the alteration and associated health risk assessment of marine heavy metals, including Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Nickle (Ni) and lead (Pb) in the edible tissue of marine fish (Thunnus tonggol) was conducted in this study. To this end, fish samples were caught from the Bandar Abbas, (Northern Persian Gulf, Iran) with the average weight and length of 3456.35 ± 241.33 g and 46.56 ± 6.14 cm, respectively. Fish muscles were carefully collected and cooked in boiling (in water), frying (in the pan), steaming (with a steamer), spicing (with common spices) and raw (without cooking and spice) methods. Then, samples were analyzed for the metal concentration using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Human health risk assessments were applied using Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Total Target Hazard Quotient (TTHQ), Cancer Risk (CR), Cumulative Cancer Risk (CCR), Weekly Consumption Rate (CR) and Monthly Consumption Rate (CR). Results showed highest Hg, As, Cr, Ni and Pb contents at spiced, fried, steamed, raw and spiced muscle samples at 23.16 ± 2.11, 1.59 ± 0.24, 1.54 ± 0.42, 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.02 mg/kg w.w, respectively. CR and CR demonstrated an increase in the cooking methods. Health risk indices showed THQ more than 1 for Hg and As (with non-carcinogenic risk) and below 1 for Cr, Ni, and Pb (without non-carcinogenic risk). CR showed carcinogenic risk for As in children (CR > 1 × 10−4), but there was no cancer risk for other heavy metals. TTHQ and CCR showed non-carcinogenic and acceptable carcinogenic risks to target human groups, respectively. Together, marine fish species in the Persian Gulf are highly contaminated with heavy metals which under different cooking processes heavy metals concentration can show significant alterations for consumers.