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Ali Kazemi

Ali Kazemi

Academic rank: Associate Professor
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0618-6435
Education: PhD.
ScopusId: 57197913901
Faculty: Agriculture and Environment
Address: Arak University


Health risk assessment of total chromium in the qanat as historical drinking water supplying system
Qanat Total chromium Hazard quotient Non-carcinogenic risk Risk assessment Eastern Iran
Journal Science of the Total Environment
Researchers Ali Kazemi ، Milad Esmaeilbeigi ، Zahra Sahebi ، Amir Ansari


This study investigated the health risk assessment of total chromium (CrT) in qanats of South Khorasan, Eastern Iran. For this, concentration of CrT in a total of 83 qanats were measured in summer 2020. Samples were initially tested in the field for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS). In the lab, collected samples were filtered and fixed with nitric acid (HNO3) for the detection of CrT using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Hazard quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk assessments were considered to evaluate the risks of CrT to inhabitants. Results showed that concentration of CrT ranged from 1.79 to 1017.05 μg L-1, and a total of 25 stations illuminated CrT concentrations above the WHO standards (50 μg L-1). HQ demonstrated HQ < 1 for 90.37% of studied samples with negligible hazard, whereas 9.63% of stations illuminated HQ ≥ 1 meaning the presence of non-carcinogenic risk for water consumers. Carcinogenic risk (CR) exhibited CR > 1.00E-04 in 81.93% of qanats while 18.07% of stations had 1.00E-06 < CR < 1.00E-04 meaning no acceptable and acceptable CR for the studied qanats, respectively. Zoning map displayed that qanats in the south of South Khorasan possessed the highest HQ, but north regions showed the lowest ones. Together, CrT in qanats of South Khorasan is above the WHO limit, which results in a high risk of carcinogenicity for residents, and in turn, more efforts should be made to provide hygienic groundwater for consumers.